By Gregory B. Markus

ISBN-10: 058521672X

ISBN-13: 9780585216720

ISBN-10: 0803913729

ISBN-13: 9780803913721

An advent to a number of thoughts which may be utilized in the research of knowledge from a panel examine -- details acquired from loads of entities at or extra deadlines. the point of interest of this quantity is on research instead of difficulties of sampling or layout, and its emphasis is on program instead of conception.

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**Additional resources for Analyzing Panel Data (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences)**

**Example text**

Despite these disadvantages, the Wiggins models may provide valuable insights into the nature of the dynamic process under study, and they ought to be included in a panel researcher's repertoire of analytical strategies. Coleman Model Coleman's (1964a, 1964b) approach to the analysis of panel data is similar to Wiggins's in that it recognizes that manifest change may include errorresponse uncertainty, in Coleman's languageas well as true change. The two families of models differ in some significant ways, however, both in terms of the theories of attitude change from which they are derived and, consequently, in the parameters to be estimated.

A comparison of Equation 29 with Equations 26 to 28 shows that they are equivalent ways of describing the same model, with Page 37 Similarly, the nonsaturated model, is equivalent to the regression equation, where eij is the disturbance term. The expected values of the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates of the b's in Equation 32 are identical to those of the iterative maximum likelihood estimates of the corresponding coefficients in Equation 31. As Goodman points out, however, the disturbance in Equation 32 is not homoscedastic and, therefore, OLS will yield inefficient parameter estimates; in addition, the usual significance tests of the b coefficients do not apply (see Kmenta, 1971).

The assumption that change in attitude elements is first-order Markovian in nature is quite restrictive, and the Coleman model should only be used in situations for which this simple change model is theoretically plausible. In practice, there are many empirical patterns of change that do not fit the assumptions of the Coleman model, and in such cases the inappropriateness of the model is evidenced in implausible parameter estimates or, in extreme instances, by a failure to produce any estimates at all.

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