By Harold E. Himwich
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Additional info for Amines and Schizophrenia
1964) unpublished results. S E N , N . P . and M C G E E R , P . L. (1964) Biochemical 1 4 , 227. 2 0 2 , 519. and Biophysical S E N O H , S . , A X E L R O D , J. a n d W I T K O P , B . (1959) Journal Society, 8 1 , 6240. SOURKES, T . L. (1962) Biochemistry of Mental Disease, Research Communications, of the American Chemical N e w York, Harper & R o w e . T A K E S A D A , M L , K A K I M O T O , Y . , S A N O , I . a n d K A N E K O , Z. (1963) Nature, 1 9 9 , 203. W A G N E R , A . F . , CIRILLO, V .
Since the amine is believed to be oxidized by monoamine oxidase to 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid (Friedhoff and Van Winkle, 1963), it also seemed likely that chances of detecting the amine in urine should be improved by inhibition of that enzyme. We have found that when authentic 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine is added in very small amounts to raw urine, 9 6 % of the compound can be recovered when the urine is treated with Dowex 50 by the method of Kakimoto and Armstrong (1962), and when the resulting amine concentrate is then subjected to ionexchange column chromatography by the method of Perry and Schroeder (1963).
We do not believe these unidentified amines have any etiological significance in schizophrenia, and suspect that they, like ^-tyramine and tryptamine, are probably products of bacterial enzymatic activity in the large intestine. They are not usually detected in the urines of normal subjects; but f AMINES IN N O R M A L A N D SCHIZOPHRENIC SUBJECTS 39 we have found them present in the urines of most institutionalized mentally retarded chidren. BRAIN AMINES In studying the possible relationship of abnormalities in amine metabolism to schizophrenia and other forms of mental disease, it is only natural that most investigators commence with the examination of urine.
Amines and Schizophrenia by Harold E. Himwich