By Maurice Natanson
"Why is my ache perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed?" -Jeremiah "Existentialism" at the present time refers to faddism, decadentism, morbidity, the "philosophy of the graveyard"; to phrases like worry, dread, anxiousness, suffering, anguish, aloneness, dying; to novelists resembling Jean-Paul Sartre, Dostoievski, Camus, Kafka; to philosophers like Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Marcel, Jaspers, and Sartre-and since it refers to, and is worried with, all of those rules and individuals, existentialism has misplaced any clearer that means it could possibly have initially possessed. since it has such a lot of definitions, it will probably not be outlined. As Sartre writes: "Most those that use the be aware existentialism will be em barrased in the event that they needed to clarify it, considering the fact that, now that the observe is the entire rage, even the paintings of a musician or painter is being known as existentialist. A gossip columnist . . . symptoms himself The Exis tentialist, in order that via this time the note has been so stretched and has taken on so huge a which means, that it not skill whatever in any respect. " 2 This country of definitional confusion isn't really an unintentional or negligible topic. An try out should be made during this advent to account for the confustion and to teach why any definition of existentialism in volves us in a tangle. First, in spite of the fact that, it will be significant to kingdom in a tenta tive and extremely basic demeanour what issues of view are right here meant whilst reference is made to existentialism.
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Additional info for A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre’s Ontology
The foundation for the answers to these questions has been constructed already in Sartre's considerations of nihilation, facticity, the body, the Other, and, of course, the pour-soi and the en-soi. 92 Through a new interrogation of these concepts, Sartre proposes to reveal the ontological nature of action and to show the relation of action to man's freedom. EN, 484. , 502. 9J! , 503. 90 81 Chapter III THE SELF 1. FREEDOM According to Sartre, every action is, in principle, intentional; and true action implies a consciousness of acting on the part of the actor.
Of what is there desire? and What is it that desires? " 77 This EN, 446. , 447. , 449. 73 Ibid. , 451. , 455. 78 Ibid. , 459. " 78 Desire, however, also leads to a paradox-an "impossible ideal": "to possess the transcendance of the Other as pure transcendance and yet. -Sadism is the correlated reverse of masochism. Like masochism it is destined to failure. "The object of sadism is immediate appropriation.... " 80 "What the sadist seeks ... " 81 To accomplish this the sadist seeks the moment of decision when his victim gives in under the torture.
But if my being-for-other has revealed the necessity for the Other, the 8SEN,811. , 812. , 815. sa Ibid . , 816. , 819 . , 327-328. , 337. , 842. , 849. " 311 Sartre's answer to our question will be given later, when the ground for such an answer has been prepared. We may return now to the concept of shame and its relation to the problem of the Other. Pure shame, Sartre tells us, is the feeling of being an object, not some particular object. Shame exists when I recognize myself as degraded by and dependent upon the Other.
A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre’s Ontology by Maurice Natanson